Muslim’s Relationship with Others As Derived from the Guidance of the Messenger

The relationship of a Muslim with non-Muslims has been based on so clear foundations that make me consider any other foundations as  unclear, regardless of those who offer  them .

No doubt that the Messenger ( peace be upon him ) knows best about the religion of Allah , so I am going to be guided by his guidance and situations , starting with his situation concerning the agreement called Al-fodoul  that was in Jahilyyah ( pre- Islam ) and about which the prophet said :

( I have witnessed in the house of Abdullah Ibn Jud’an an agreement , which is better for me than a whole lot of red camels , and if I was invited to a similar agreement In Islam I would accept it )

then  the relationship of the prophet with his uncle (a polytheist ) till his death ( how he accepted the protection of a polytheist ) then the  first migration to Habasha(Ethiopia ) – Christians – asking for protection , then his agreement with khuza’a ( a polytheist tribe ) then his agreement with the  Jaws .

The Messenger ( peace be Upon him ) had situations and dealings with the other over his whole message , and these are some of them .

The first situation : the defeat of romans by Persians , and the sadness of Muslims due to that . Allah revealed verses consoling Muslims and tell them that victory will be for them  in the future Allah said

” The Byzantines have been defeated In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat , will overcome. Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice “

will rejoice for  the romans victory in spite of the polytheistic rituals practiced by most or all Christians at that time . that shows that our relationship with Christians reaches the extent that we get sad for their defeat , and rejoice for their victory .

The second situation : fasting the during the day of Aashura ( the tenth day of the month of Al-muharram ) which Arabs used to fast in it in jahiliyah , and when the prophet (peace be upon him ) came to Madinah  , he knew that Jaws fast in it , when he asked what was the reason for fasting in it they said that it was the day in which Allah gave victory to Moses against Pharaoh , so the prophet  performed fasting during it and asked his companions to fast during it .

The third situation : the situation of the prophet with the polytheists of Makah at the conquest of Makah , a year and some months before the prophet’s death , the prophet forbade fighting polytheists – except for those who begin fighting  – in the most honoured and sacred places – i.e. Makah –

the prophet  kept the polytheists’ money and family safe from any type of harm – except four men or as said by some scholars six men and four women  who allowed killing them  –  moreover the prophet granted them liberty to choose their religion and doctrine .

The fourh situation : during the battle of  Hunayn , the prophet said to safwan Ibn Umayyah

” o Abu Umayyah give  us your weapons to use them against  our enemy . Safwan said – at that time he was non-Muslim –  do you take them by force . the prophet said : no , you lend them to me , and they are guaranteed until I give them back to you “

then Safwan gave the prophet one hundred armours .

The  prophet ( peace be upon him ) moved to the Mercy of his Lord ( i.e. died ) while his armour  still in hock to a Jew .

These examples and  other examples were not during a specific period or place , they covered the whole time and place of the message of the prophet  to guide us to the ideal dealing with the other ( non-Muslim) and that shows the wrong  fanatical attitude taken by contemporaries or former people .

It is important to Emphasizes that such tolerant attitude taken by a Muslim towards the other is an everlasting attitude , which is not Inconsistent with the verses of Jihad  that invites to liberate land  , and defend ourselves , and our families ; Allah says :

”  Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory “

So it is not strange , that the whole number of polytheists and Jews killed in all battles , over the life of the prophet . does not exceed 803 , despite the large number of those battles .

I offer this vision that Muslims may be familiar with the way of dealing with non – Muslims used by the prophet ( peace be Upon him ) over the whole time of his message .

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